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Opposing players compete to maximize scores by racing against the Mach-1 time frame prescribed-rather than merely making captures.
Accordingly, a concerted attempt must be made to expedite moves, captures and settlement transactions in order to earn the maximum Mach-1 speed-of-performance bonus at the stipulated level.
The basic Vectorial game may be described as a miniature directional and formation oriented game which is based on structural behavioral and intellectual aspects represented by the Mancala family games.
Such games usually involve the initial setting up of a plurality of seeds in holes on two or four sides of a board and the transference of said pieces with a view toward capturing agreed-upon numerical quantities with the last piece dropped.
Games of the present invention improve upon this basic primitive technique by utilization of significantly new means, methods and apparatus to achieve significantly new ends.
Games usually represent one of over "simulated scenarios" and are embodied in a wide range of commercially feasible ways e.
Improved apparatus for making and playing these Vectorial and Mancala-like games include a game case which contains two built-in timing devices and four storages units for up to two hundred pieces which are differentiated as to color, class, role, power and value; play money which is used to settle financially-related transactions; question and answer cards which contain various types of instructions that bring about unexpected advances and reversals; a doubling device which is used to initiate and increase bets; a standardized, official set of rules governing proper methods of play; and a notation system which may be used to record play for analytical purposes.
The state of the prior art relating to Vectorial and Mancala-like games has remained relatively unchanged in modern times. Several patents have been granted, locally and abroad, but these have not significantly improved the primitive forms underlying techniques, apparatus, embodiments or methods.
For instance, none of the patents found disclosed any modification relating to simulation of real-life subjects and events. A careful study of these and other patents revealed that they all failed to significantly change the conventional structure and methods of playing Mancala games.
Undoubtedly, the two most pertinent U. The first relates to a conventional 4-row Mancala game called Chuba and the second to an improved game board, with built-in scoring beads, for 2-row Mancala games.
The intelligence that forms the basis for the Vectorial games of the invention are unique. Halma, Mill, Wari and Mastermind, in part, evidence some basic aspects of Vectorial techniques which we have significantly improved.
Structurally, this game is the smallest--and one of the most difficult games of skill. A technical analysis of this basic miniature game--called Vector--reveals that certain dynamics occur directly as a result of the limitation of its syntactical essences.
In respect to time the game has no equal as to speed of play in all three phases: In space the action takes place on a Vectorial matrix which is limited to four cells, four pieces and forward, reverse and diagonal moves.
Rules assign roles and values, moves and captures, and accuracy of thought is almost as important as speed of implementation. An important aspect of the game is its diversity of forms.
The basic, cellular matrix of the miniature game 4 cells was expanded both in respect to the number of cells, rows and directional sense of the vectors.
Mancala from the Arabic "naqala", meaning "to transfer" is the generic name for a count and capture type game widely played in Africa and the Middle East.
An in-depth study see H. For instance, in the two-row games called "Wari," the board consists of two horizontal rows of six cells along its edges with two larger depressions for storage to the left and right of the rows.
The initial set up calls for four pieces beans, stones, cowrie shells, etc. Further, if there are additional holes "made" with two and three beans and if these are contiguous to and continuous with the hole captured, then contents of these holes are also taken by way of bonus capture s.
Even if the beans have different colors, there is no differentiation as to value or powers. Thus, the object of the game is to win the majority of beans, each having the same value of one point.
The four-row game is somewhat more sophisticated. In the game called Omweso, the board consists of four rows of eight depressed, egg-shaped holes.
The initial set-up is four seeds per back row hole for a total of In some variations of the game, seeds or beans may be rearranged on making the opening move.
Captures are not removed but "sowed back" with several rounds being possible before the move ends. A move ends when the last piece sowed falls in an empty cell.
In some cases, if only the front hole is loaded, seeds in these are taken. A move continues, relay-fashion as in a race with all the captured beans until further captures are made or the move comes to an end with the player dropping his last bean in an empty hole.
In sum, these specific features represent the prior state of the art where the most widely-accepted methods and rules of playing Mancala two and four-row games are concerned.
These and other disadvantages, summarized hereinafter, are overcome by the wide range of improvements offered by my invention. A careful evaluation of the prior art reveals the following major points:.
Mancala is played in the ground or on a board, usually with six to eight cup-shaped depressions on either side.
The initial set-up is usually one, two, three, four, or more beans in each hole of the two-row game or in the back row holes of the four-row game.
There is no official time factor as an integral part of the game. However, an honored tradition does exist wherever Mancala is played: The game carries no penalties or fines in terms of forfeiting pieces; and bonuses, if any, are limited to the contents of en prise cells as described hereintofore.
There are no diagonal moves in the four-row game, although some variances of Omweso permit a reverse move from left corner cells if such a move results in capture.
The game is never designed to depict or simulate an event beyond the intrinsic nature and essence of the game itself. With these limitations inherent in all commercialized forms of the game, Mancala predictably failed to capture the imagination of the American consumer.
This is so in spite of the fact that several attempts have been made by established toys and games companies to market the game locally.
In each case the historical boat-shaped or rectangular board with depressed cup-shaped holes on two or four horizontal rows was used.
Playing pieces used have been seeds, stones, beans, or marbles. Among the firms which have attempted to make and market Mancala games along conventional lines, i.
All the limiting features of the prior art are overcome by the present invention, in regard to a new and improved form of the game, as well as methods and apparatus.
The net effect is enhanced educational and entertainment appeal. Vectorial miniatures and their large Mancala-like variations may be graphically designed to simulate a scenario for any subject-matter with dramatic appeal.
This claim is attested to by the drawings and a sampling of examples which exemplify the infinite scope of the process and product line capability.
Prior art achievements may be gleaned from an indepth study of the available literature of which the following bibliography is highly representative:.
Rattay, ed , Oxford: Oxford Univeristy Press, , pp. Cooperative Recreation Service, A careful study of the above cited sources attests to the fact that all aspects of the inventions described hereinafter represent significant improvements over the prior art.
Two groups of games are disclosed: In sum, the multi-facted aspects of the invention may be classified as follows:. Miniature "MachThink" Vectorial games in various forms of embodiments e.
Boardgames, video and hand-held computerizations. Entertainments, Advertisements, and "Enter-trainments," as defined. New and improved methods of play and descriptive annotation System: Under 3 c a number of games are described which simulate real-life subject matters--events, sports, hobbies and lend themselves to diverse forms of commercially feasible embodiments.
They are syntactically constructed to draw upon the logical, judgmental and creative abilities of playing pieces in selecting, moving and capturing a plurality of playing pieces which are differentiated by symbolic characteristics as to class, powers, roles and values.
The objective of the game is to maximize property accumulation points, runs, cash, etc. The primary objective of the invention, however, goes beyond improvements in apparatus and quality of play.
By simulating popular, real-life subjects and events of educational and entertainment value to millions, the games of the invention will serve to assist in the training function in diverse fields requiring technical expertise via mastery of a body of knowledge.
Further, they may be used for advertising and promotional purposes with a view toward furthering trade and commerce, establishing goodwill, generating prospects, etc.
Obviously, the games meet the expected norms as entertaining devices and have been rated very highly by several consumer testing panels. The games of the invention utilize a wide range of so-called "game matrices" consisting of one to eight rows of two to twelve cells.
These structural and behavioral aspects are particularly essential to the proper development of promotional objectives.
The simulation effect must succeed in "psyching-in" the player to a fair representation of "real" areas of the subject matter being treated.
The establishment of a related glossary of terms and interrelated rules of play are extremely important functions. The various steps of the simulation process are described in depth and several examples are presented to exemplify the scope of the invention.
New and improved methods of play developed relate to both Vectorial and Mancala-like games vis-a-vis: Transfer of all behavioral dimensions to computer-based micro-processing technology was successfully accomplished.
As a direct result of these and other improvements over the prior art, the games of the invention in particular, and Mancala games in general, may now be played at much higher levels of intellectual challenge and with far more suspense.
Professional level play--in the category of Chess, Go, Checkers and Backgammon--is directly facilitated by the standardization of official rules and the improvement of the notation system.
Other merits of the invention will become clear from a study of the description of its apparatus, methods and games, as stated in the specification and shown in the accompanying drawings.
The description herein makes reference to 21 sheets of accompanying drawings wherein like reference numerals refer to similar components throughout the several figures, and wherein:.
It represents a matrix particularized by 3 rows on either side of a centrally-located value-line and a series of 8 cells per row. The overlay has a second game on the reverse side.
Note that optional moves from the "switch" cells are indicated by the 3-way arrows shown. Switch vectorial options are shown completely in FIG.
The row designations herein relate to the number of rows in each receptacle area on either side of the centrally-located "transactions" field.
Note the built-in timers and storage compartments. Referring particularly to the invented game case illustrated in FIG. A cross-section 9 is shown cut through the case in order to illustrate structural fit of the timing device 7.
The field of the case 12 should be regarded as a "stage" on which the drama of the game "scenario" or "simulation" will be staged. The case consists of its playing field 12 , two built-in timing devices 7 , four storage units 1 with capacity for a plurality of playing pieces which may be chips, cards, discs, 3-D figures, etc.
The four storage units 1 may be made of plastic or compressed cardboard with removable covering 2. Each storage unit 1 is held firmly inside its respective storage compartment by projections 3 along the sides which groove into indentations 4 and thus prevent spillage when opening or closing the game case.
At the same time, the storage unit 1 may be pried loose and removed from the case if so desired. The storage units illustrated in FIG.
The game case used to embody the games of the present invention is similar to the traditional backgammon case except for the abovementioned improvements.
In addition, the receptacle areas consisting of one to four rows of horizontally-arranged cells may be flat, troughed or mounded. Conventional battery operated timing devices, of suitable dimensions, were secured and glued down, as shown.
Thus, the timing devices become a unique feature of the game case, as well as the built-in storage units. In certain variations the usage of non-built-in timing devices, e.
This would in no way depart from the essence of the Mach or Speed feature of the exact game and variations of the present invention.
Comparison with conventional enumerating system vis-a-vis Mancala games is facilitated by equating Machcala one row to Mancala two-row games and Mancala two-row to Machcala four-row games.
Although in the illustrations the maximum number of cells in each row is limited to twelve, it is to be understood that said maximum number may be extended beyond twelve.
In fact, an MXIV twenty-four cell configuration for 4 players was successfully tested with minor modifications to the initial set up and capturing rules.
Numerous tests have proven, however, that quality of play is highest in the cell range. The designation of "switch" or "optional moves" cells which permit changing from regular forward direction to a "vertical", "reverse" or "diagonal" direction is indicated in the respective cells by the 3-way vectors.
In most "scenario" games the value-lines are separated by this "transaction area" which serves as the main "design field" for simulation purposes.
Although in the illustration the minimum number of posts is limited to four and the maximum is twelve, it is to be understood that the maximum number of cells may be extended.
Although in the illustration the minimum number of posts is limited to four and the maximum to twelve, it is to be understood that the maximum may be extended and the minimum reduced to two.
Again, although in the illustration the minimum number of posts is limited to four and the maximum to twelve, it is to be understood that the maximum number of cells may be extended beyond twelve and the minimum reduced to two.
The game matrices of FIGS. They may be made from various materials, including but not limited to paper, cardboard, glass, plastic, leather, leatherette, wood, etc.
When a matrix is not pasted down, there is usually an additional game field on the reverse face. These may be used to vary the design function for aesthetic purposes.
Games have been made with playing fields in the shape of a circle, diamond, square, triangle, oval, pentagon, hexagon, septagon, octagon, as well as other irregular shapes.
Playing pieces are of different kinds--various-colored chips, mini-cards, discs, 3-D figures, etc. The playing pieces used are always differentiated by way of symbolic indicia as to class, color, power, value, and role, and vary in size as per dimension of the receptacle areas of the playing field.
Regular plastic and casino poker chips were used as playing pieces, with identifying characteristics on each face. Colors used were, in order of value, gold, silver, blue and red.
Miniature cards used are much smaller and thicker than conventional American or westernized playing cards. In the main, miniature 3-dimensional figures are 1" wide and 2"-3" high and are usually magnetic-based.
Indicia on both faces of chips or cards usually vary and provide for the playing of other variations of the game. Playing pieces are also used to play other games included in specially designed "super" sets which usually contain three or more basic variations.
In that chips, cards, and discs allow for stacking, ready and easy recognition, "sight" counting or "measuring", the speed and mathematical exactitude of playing Machcala is far greater and more exciting than Mancala.
It is used to initiate, then double and redouble bets from twice to two-hundred and fifty-six times the original amount of the wager.
Another apparatus which plays a critical role in the game is the regular 3- or 5-minute "egg timer" or hour-glass. These may be used as "timers" when a case with built-in timing devices is not used to embody the game.
Question and answer cards prevent the removal of captured pieces if questions are not correctly answered. See Methods of Play section. Chance cards contain directives of two kinds: Play money is a critical ingredient for all financially-oriented games and is used to settle captures to pay-off value immediately when made or as post-capture transactions.
Because the color-coded value-pieces indicate value, a scoring pad is not required unless the pay-off factors on the value-line are in play. In sum, the above-described apparatus was used to meet the structural requirements of the games of the invention and to improve the quality of play.
As a result, the games of the invention are far more dynamic and intellectually challenging than conventional Mancala and compare favorably with Backgammon, Go, Chess and other classical games.
Most of the apparatus in the game serve to enhance the state of art relating to the structural embodiment of Mancala and Mancala-like games and the way said games are played.
How this is brought about will be clearly revealed by an explanation of the syntactical and behavioral aspects of the basic game of the invention and the numerous variants spawned.
The game products of the invention fall under three primary categories: This game--a vectorial "banking" game called "Banko"--is financially oriented in regard to its scenario.
The basic game encompasses the fundamental structural elements and behavioral dimensions present in the Machcala "Xchange" and "Relay" games, as described hereinafter.
Revealed are several unique features which are entirely new to Mancala and Mancala-like games. This matrix was used to develop the miniature combinatorial version of the basic game of the invention.
A full and clear understanding of this, the so-called basic game of the invention, is essential to comprehension of the wealth of Machcala games which it generates.
Anyone with skills in the field of game design will readily see that several features of this parental and cellular game represent significant advancement over the prior art vis-a-vis games dealing with count and capture techniques and pattern formations e.
Tic-tac-toe, Morris, Chinese Checkers, and Mancala. Game scenario or setting--financially-oriented; relates to a number of "Banks" or "Casinos" competing for deposits or patronage and offering different levels of pay-off Value or Point Pieces: These represent property to the accumulated and are differentiated color-codings as follows: In sum each player has 4 Gold and 4 Silver pieces.
These are the "Banko" and "Killer" pieces. They have no value when captured. However, they are empowered to make or negate capture as follows: Only Banko can capture Killer to form a zero-valued "pair.
Initial Set-up - Back game: Total factored value with gold placed in 2: The game ends when one player goes bankrupt and cannot meet the call for payment.
The timing device must be started before commencing the move called deal in the front game and stopped following the end of the deal in the back game.
When captures are made settlement is made "off" the timer. Thus the MACH-1 time frame relates to move-time deal-time only. To initiate the first move in the front game, the player lifts all the pieces called set in either bank and deposits one in each successive bank moving clockwise from one row to the other.
Deals are confined to both rows. If the last piece falls in a loaded bank, that set is lifted and then dealt, as in a relay race, until the last piece falls in an empty bank or capture is made, as defined.
A player can only exercise the option to switch reverse or diagonal after making a deposit in a forward direction. Only 2 Forward moves, 1 Reverse and 1 Diagonal are allowed per deal.
The lift of a new set in a front game relay combination constitutes a new deal. Note too that in "vectorial" games a player may initiate a switch from his own second bank X2, Y2.
See Methods of switching in "regular" Machcala games. This procedure involves the exchange of value pieces for power pieces and is not included in the vectorial series of games.
See methods of play-regular games. Capturing in the Front Game: No capture may result from the first "opening" deal in either game.
Pay-off value would be determined by the color of the pair and pay-off factor. A pair of specials has no value. If the bank behind that captured also contains a pair these are taken by way of bonus capture.
Settlement is not made until the deal in the back game is completed. Capturing in the Back Game: If a deposit s was made in the other bank and said bank contains a pair, as defined, these are taken by way of bonus capture.
Payoff value is factored 1: Captures are evaluated and paid at the end of the deal in the back game. This is usually done "off" the timer.
A pair of Silvers captured in a 1: A pair of Silvers captured in a 2: A pair of Specials has no value. These are usually picked following a move that ends in capture--limited to two.
Directives on these cards being about unexpected financial reversals or advances. Not recommended for advanced level play. See rules of play section.
Bets may be made and doubled by use of the doubling device, as described; e. Both the Front and Back Game end when all value pieces have been captured or players are reduced to one piece each.
Pay off is made as per value and position of the piece at 1: This may be a mutual exchange. Side bets are usually settled at the end of each game.
A score card may be used but is not necessary. It is of interest to note that banks-in-competition bear logos of well-known gaming or financial institutions.
Thus, apart from being a useful and entertaining article of manufacture, the game serves as an advertising medium directed toward the furtherance of trade and commerce.
It is played exactly as described for the combinatorial game. Mach-1 is reduced to seconds or 10 seconds per move.
It will be observed that the cells between the first and last called corner cells offer a 5-way option on the next drop, as indicated by the vector.
The maximum number of switch options is represented by the 8-sided vector in "relay" or combinational relay-xchange games.
Machcala vectorials are usually limited to cells per row in regulation "Xchange" games i. The center row is "commonly" or "jointly" owned.
Thus both players may lift and deal any set in any bank on the center row or on their own row. Capture of a pair of the same color can be made from the back or center row.
Vectorial options are limited to the 3- and 5-way switch, as shown. All cells between the four corner cells offer the player a fiveway vectorial option as shown.
Mach-1 is and seconds respectively. Special shapes and sizes: Machcala vectorials were rendered and successfully tested on matrices containing as few as four and as many as cells.
The placement of numerals from 1 to 12 in the center of the board suffices to provide the field for the dice game. The object of this variance is to move pieces in such a way as to form pairs, as defined.
The King is invested with negative powers of Killer K and the queen has the power of vector V. Vectorial games may be embodied on any device normally used for making arithmetic calculations.
Vectorial "Drill Formation" Games: These variance take one of two forms: This is done with great virtuosity and includes dance movements, gymnastics, acrobatics, and the like.
These embodiments provide the capability for playing up to 12 vectorial games in one set. Capability is achieved via use of game overlays.
Another embodiment which achieves the same end is the multi-game TV cartridge for video computer game systems.
The simulation capability of the invention is aptly demonstrated by a game derived from the basic "Scenario" or Banko game. Let us examine the game of FIG.
Note that the game case has two built-in timing devices which serve to facilitate the "speed" aspect of the game. Both players are in charge of 24 "posts"--the three horizontal rows of 8 cells each on either side of the value-line in FIG.
The playing pieces are color-coded chips bearing indicia which assign value as blocs of shares. The objective of the game is twofold: The net effect is the realization of gains or losses on invested capital.
The "initial set-up" is made by each player selecting a plurality of value chips colored gold, silver, blue, and red sufficient to place four one of each color in each of the eight un-charted posts of the "sell" game on the first two rows; four value chips are also placed in each of the eight cells of the back row or "buy" game.
Each "point" chip 5a and 5b bears indicia on one face indicating its value. One Mach called Dealer is entered in each loaded post. Finally, "Cala called "Chairman of the Board" and Killer called "Commissioner of the Xchange" are entered in each game in four different loaded posts in the front game and 2 in the back.
Questions relate to the Street Market and finance. If not a special deck of chance cards with "Head Office" instructions is shuffled and placed on the table beside the recommended doubling device.
Directives on the chance cards contain both "pro" and "con" instructions affecting financial positions. With verification and setting of the MACH-1 time frame and the fixing of the "price for the seat" on the Xchange first bet , the game is formally set-up for the opening "ceremonies" to commence.
Before the opening move may be made certain preliminaries have to be attended to; e. The flip of a chip or coin usually decides first move.
These rearrangements have been tested and are somewhat similar to "opening moves" in chess. Both players then negotiate the "opening contract" which must be for at least 10, shares for each game, i.
No captures can be taken from the floor until this "opening contract" is made. Once it has been made, however, all captures are "open" as described hereinafter.
See Switch Move Options. Next, the move in the back or "buy" game is made by the same player lifting all the chips in any of the eight loaded third-row posts and dealing one in each post in a counter-clockwise direction.
Generally, pieces are dropped as lifted. However, rules for this game require that special pieces be dealt last. The order of the deal is a any kind of value piece in the order as arranged before the deal begins; b Machs aka dealers or brokers ; c Big Mach Chairman of the Board ; and, d Killer Commissioner of the Xchange.
While the Specials are being repositioned the order of the pieces "set" may be changed. When overt counting is forbidden it also enables the player to covertly assess the number of pieces in each set under the guise of claiming to be "only rearranging" or "stacking" while, in fact, counting.
Once the opening contract of 10, shares or more has been made, all subsequent captures may be made without regard to value, provided the number of pieces hit is two, three or four.
Thus, such captures could be as low in value as 5, shares 2 blocs of 2, shares each or as high as 40, shares 4 blocs of 10, shares each.
Prior to settlement value pieces captured in the front "sell" game are stacked before the post s from which they were bought captured.
A bonus capture is earned as follows in the front "sell" game: A player may elect to continue or stop dealing after capture is made.
All "sell" game captures are mandatory. However, transactions are not settled until after the back game move has been completed.
After the "sell" game move ends whether in capture or non-capture the player makes the "buy" game move with the timer still running.
These pieces are said to be "made" as against "hit" in the "sell" game. If other posts in which chips were dropped in that deal or "run" also contain two, three, or four pieces, and if these are "chained" or linked" i.
All captures in the back game are classified as "offers" or "buy opportunities" and are optional. If the "offer" is accepted, the player keeps prices captured including specials and pays for value pieces only, as per "Price Per Share" stated on the Value-line for the respective posts: The opponent then "settles" all outstanding "transactions", if any, and the player picks one or two chance cards and follows "orders" which may relate to paying or collecting outstanding loans margins , interest, etc.
When all the value pieces have been captured, the Stock Xchange "closes" for the day and the players then proceed to ascertain their "closing" positions.
It becomes obvious after playing this "Stock Exchange" variant a few times that "playing the posts" maximizing "pay-off" capture values is of vital strategic importance.
In many instances a player may "sacrifice", i. Next in strategic importance to command of the value-line is the corner game-called "playing the corners.
These and other aspects of strategic play are discussed hereinafter in the sections dealing with Methods of Play. The most critical area of proficiency, however, may well be mastery of the "corner game", i.
These then are the important procedural and strategic aspects of playing the so-called "Stock Market" simulation game.
I feel that it is fair to say that the various innovations described in this game and elsewhere in the specification, represent a new and significantly improved process for making and playing Mancala games, in general, and Mancala-like simulation games in particular.
The preferred embodiment of the parent simulation game FIG. Although this format is recommended as that which provides the highest quality of play, it is not to be regarded as the only way to render the game.
These three variations are played as follows:. The eight charted posts of both rows represent the "front" or "sell" game and the eight "logoed" posts of both rows represent the "back" or "buy" game.
Rules moves and captures, etc. In this version, however, all posts are "in competition" and all captures are compulsory. Chips or cards may be used as pieces as described hereintofore.
The charted posts represent the "Sell" game and those logoed represent the "Buy" game, as shown. In this version of the game, all captures are mandatory.
The game is played substantially as prescribed for the "back" or "buy" game of the basic game and the parent simulation game.
Mach-1 is 10 minutes per player. All time frames for Machcala Xchange games and variations were pre-tested and established in order to emphasize this critical aspect of play.
Numerous tests at different levels of proficiency proved that these levels of "speed" can be achieved with practice.
As a result, it is felt that a ten-minute Mach-1 time frame for MXI and MRII versions is within the reach of most players who adhere to the caveat that speed counts.
All the vectorial and Mancala-like games of the invention may be rendered in electronic and computer-based embodiments.
The microprocessor incorporated in any of these games is a miniature electronic system with a computer program which supplies the intelligence for memory, response, and detection.
When used in conjunction with other electronic elements in a circuit, lights and sounds are actuated to promote additional dimensions of play.
The following description exemplifies this capability by way of several examples: The deposit of this last piece will therefore increase total contents of that bank to two, three, or four pieces.
Capture-value is "stored" by the computer or transactions may be "settled" as they occur--with chips or play money. Macs are omitted and only the two power pieces will be used, with powers vested as stated heretofore.
Rex is called "Commissioner of the Xchange" or "Killer" and prevents capture by any piece. Pro-I excludes all switch moves, multiple capture limitation, and Mach bonus.
It is recommended for beginners. At PRO-II level all aspects of advanced play are involved, including switch moves, multiple capture limitations, Mach bonus, betting, etc.
The game ends in one of two ways: As shown in FIG. Each cell pays a different ratio of dollars to capture-value as shown.
The pay-off ratio for cells ranges from 1: There are two classes of playing pieces: The Special "power" pieces restrict or enhance capture capability.
Although these pieces have no value, they do count in the number of pieces in a cell for capture purposes. Big Mac must be computerized as a "positive" force.
Killer, on the other hand, represents a "negative" force. Whenever this piece occupies a cell, no piece therein may effect capture.
A captured "killer" may be "recalled" from "STORE" and brought back into play for defensive purposes. Big Mac, however, may not be recalled. Both power pieces have no value.
All moves begin forward counter-clockwise with the transfer of the total content of the set dealt to each successive bank or cell. There are four legal moves which may be programmed:.
After this has been done the player has the option to "switch" the direction of the next drop or drops, subject to certain limitations. The second switch move Diagonal or Reverse can be made from any of the 4 corner cells--following a switch move.
Illustration of Programs for a move:. During the course of a deal a player has one "Reverse" and one "Diagonal" switch option.
After the first switch all corner cells are "open". Thus each player initially "controls" 52 pieces. Multiple captures are not limited if player captures in all ten banks in the course of the same deal.
Note that moving time does not include "settlement" time used to make payments with chips or play money. This relates to any speed slower than Mach The bonus earned is such that Mach As illustrated in FIG.
The thirty-six 36 symbols represent the following functions:. Increases the level of difficulty when playing "Auto", i. The formats depicted in FIGS.
This is embodied in the traditional manner with push-button or lever control. These games are ideally suited for this kind of embodiment and would seem to generate very high levels of interest among game lovers at all intellectual levels.
The critical variables and lists used are dimensioned in steps to , and are as follows:. A copy of the program and print-out which provide the basis for microprocessing of the "intelligence" of this and other electromechanical and computer-based games of the invention, if needed, will be forwarded under separate cover.
Said games include, but are not limited to the basic game of the invention BANKO and all "scenario" and simulation games described hereinafter.
See, in particular, FIGS. Thus, anyone with skills in the field of computer games and micro-processing technology will agree that I have resolved the "software" problems which hitherto precluded the advancements in the state of the art.
Accordingly, the games of the invention may be used as models to reduce several strategic games to computerized format if they are based on vectorial and ManCala-like concepts, as defined.
The program supplies the intelligence, memory, response and detection capability which are used with other electronic elements in a circuit to facilitate the creation of lights and sounds which enhance the behavioral dimensions of play.
Both players are represented by X and Y. At start, the game board is as shown in FIGS. Value assignment is optional on 2: Players are allowed two forward moves 1st and 2nd , one Rev, and one Diag.
It prevents capture by any piece in the "set" occupied. Thus, Vector or any value piece can capture Killer by forming a "special" pair.
Vector V is a "wild" positive force which can make a pair with any value piece or Killer. It may also be captured and "paired" by any value piece.
Both K and V have no value when captured. If two separate pairs are formed, both are taken--called multiple capture. Although the computer records all capture values most players prefer to demand settlement in cash play money as captures are made.
This is so even if each player has one piece. Settlement is at pay-off value of 1: The player with most funds at the end of the game is the winner.
Score card is not required unless moves are annotated. Anyone skilled in the art of computer game technology will readily see that the approach perfected may be modified to computerize all vectorial and Mancala-type games.
Four examples will suffice to illustrate this capability. The success achieved by the perfection of the vectorial concept implicit in VECTOR, the basic cellular game, led to the adaptation of the essential techniques to create or improve new computer-based games.
The following examples merely serve to exemplify this capability and in no way defines or limits the scope of the invention:.
Thus, when stacked sequentially, a pyramidal structure is formed. The initial set-up may be a traditional pyramid or any of 5,,, re-arrangements ur-pyramids programmed and stored in the computer.
The object of the game is to break down the assigned pyramidal structure and rebuild a proper pyramid without placing a larger piece atop a smaller.
The number of cells is limited to three. Speed of play is a critical element and the central motive is to establish a race to beat the Mach-I time frame, as determined.
To initiate play, a player removes the topmost piece from the stack and places it in any of the two empty cells. The second piece is then removed and placed in the third cell.
Then the third piece or one of the two pieces already moved is transferred. And so on, bearing in mind the two constraints relating to size of pieces and number of cells to which transfers may be made.
Phase I consists of breaking down the form constructed; Phase II is building or rebuilding a proper pyramid.
Score for the player who succeeds in accomplishing this task is the sum of the values of the pieces. Value is assigned relative to size.
This score is doubled if the pyramid is re-formed in the central cell, which pays off 2: Both scores are increased by Mach bonus points: Adaptation of computer technology to the playing of Pi-Mach a vectorial board game in its preferred emobidment is brought about by establishing a series of arrays, each of which represents a cell.
The seven or more pieces of the pyramid are initially set up in the central cell. Each block is represented by a number associated with its value.
If a piece is selected to be moved from Stack C to Stack L "center cell" to "left cell" , a test is made comparing the top elements of each stack.
Should the top element of Stack C be less than the top element in Stack L, the move may be made and the element is popped off C and pushed onto L.
If the converse is true, the move may not be made since a larger piece would come on rest on a smaller piece. It will be observed that at any one time, there will only be three legally permissible moves for each player.
Which is the correct logical move? Various methods may be used to keep track of the time expended by each player. Score for a "full" Pi is the sum of the values times the payoff factor of 2: The winner is the first to accumulate a pre-determined number of points.
It also bridges the gap between jig-saw puzzles and vectorial board games. Aesthetics, however shape, sound, music is more pertinently involved, seeing that a vast array of figures may be sculpted.
The game is played by manipulating and qualitatively positioning pieces called Tans of various sizes and shapes to form recognizable figures which are assigned randomly by the computer: The object of the game is to arrange the tans to form the shape shown on the screen, and to do so as quickly as possible.
To initiate play, a player commands the computer to "show" a figure. This is called the "assignment". The figure first appears at center screen and then, in significantly reduced scale, on a "split" screen, as soon as the player makes the first placement.
Pieces are numbered from 1 to 15 and provide for three levels of difficulty: The assignments, as noted, are permanently shown on split screen together with time lapsation.
As soon as the first placement is programmed, the figure transfers to the split screen section. When the player is "lost" or uncertain about the placement of a piece in a certain section, it is possible to have the computer provide an "assist" See Programming Grid, FIG.
Two "assists" are allowed, but each request reduces the score by a predetermined number of points. Such "help" takes the form of a correct answer to a query, e.
The positioning of a tan by the computer in any empty grid is always in the position that said piece occupies in the correct solution.
This is so whether or not the tan is placed in the correct grid. The positioning of a tan immediately beside another is a random fit selected by the computer.
If said fit is incorrect, the player must program a "shift" "re-position" command, e. Each assignment has a pre-established Mach-I time frame level of difficulty and rating and weighted score value.
Game is usually points. This is a highly aesthetic feature--offering hundreds of thematic figures. As improved, the game matrix consists of three concentric squares or circles and 24 points.
Each player has pieces and the object of the game is to "make" three-in-a-row formations as quickly as possible.
These types of commercially feasible embodiments may be achieved by programming the behavioral intelligence, as follows:. Popping in "pieces" on selected points with a view toward forming 3-in-a-row horizontally, vertically, or diagonally.
Multiple jumps checker-like are permitted. Usually, one additional point. Game may be won by being the first to make a three-in-a-row formation; forming two or three such before opponent; blocking opponent; and, reducing opponent to two pieces only.
Each player brings in one piece on any vacant point. Moving and Jumping--pieces may be moved along lines in any direction and make checker-type jumps.
Pieces are designated "O" and "X" and take on the additional definition of the point occupied, i. Thus, O1-O3 indicates a jump over piece at O2.
If Mach is not started with the first command, the move is not implemented. On the other hand, if Mach is not stopped before the "Run" is implemented, it keeps going.
This variation encompasses all the ramifications, challenges, frustrations, and rewards involved in the quantitative and qualitative transfer of light waves from one position to another with a view toward forming certain vectorial patterns, which opponent cannot duplicate.
Object of the game is to assign opponent a "run" consisting of movements of the light to 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 or more contact points and to challenge a correct response within a given time frame.
The game matrix consists of 8 paths, 3 ringed ranges, 24 contact points and a centorium. Playing pieces are, in fact, colored light waves that are programmed to move along any of the 8 paths to selected contact points.
Although the primary focus is visual color and direction , aural elements augment the aesthetic dimensions of the game. To initiate play, one player programs a "run" which is flashed and "held" on the screen for 10 seconds.
An attempt is then made by opponent to repeat the "run" exactly. The player may make one or more attempts to do so, seeing that score is a function of the number of "tries" and amount of time used to duplicate a given number of "runs".
These four variants exemplify the flexibility of vectorial and MachThink Mancala-like concepts in creating new games, converting puzzles to games and in improving ancient games in the public domain.
The process used to develop the simulated scenario capability involves several technical procedures which I will attempt to describe for practioners in the field of game design.
The procedures involved are encompassed in the following flowchart: As illustrated in the flowchart, the sequence of operations and procedures employed in the development of a Mancala-like simulation game by the process of the present invention first involves in-depth study of the parameters, rules, and regulations of the subject matter to be treated.
Next, the playing fields and structural formats discussed hereintofore must all be evaluated as to the specific procedural requirements and artistic objectives.
The artistic design function will involve experimental mock-ups using readily identified symbolic items playing field, court, balls, bats, athletes, charts, etc.
This procedure is the first part of a series of operations which must be undertaken to establish claims to the simulation. After the setting or stage for the playing field is established, the next step involves the coloring and decoration of the playing pieces poker chips, counters, tokens, coins, cards, discs, 3-D figures, etc.
The classification of pieces is dictated by the requirements of the subject matter. The general classification of pieces are of two kinds, as stated: These special pieces are of three types: The range of values assigned to playing pieces relates to the desired total score at the end of play.
Usually a ratio of 1: The successful design of the playing field as regards functional as well as esthetic aspects and the playing pieces represent the two most important operations of the game simulation process.
Thereafter, the production of a plurality of playing cards bearing instructions which impact favorably and unfavorably on the final outcome or score is undertaken.
These instructions introduce an element of "chance" or "luck" into what are, essentially, games of wit and cunning, i.
Carded instructions usually relate to one of these scenarios--time wasting or value reduction or value increase. For example, in the "Stock Exchange" simulation game, a card might instruct a player who has just completed a capturing deal to "call and chair an important board meeting, limited to 30 seconds.
The games of the invention usually involve side bets--with play money. In order to initiate and increase wagers, a doubling device is necessary.
The "wheel-of-fortune" illustrated is highly recommended in that it is capable of increasing bets from 2 to times the initial amount.
When the doubler is not in play it is placed flat on its face. When it is in play it is placed on its side with the number uppermost representing the level of doubling attained.
Betting is not compulsory in most games and no penalties are imposed if a player declines an offer to "double up. These procedures complete the initial set of operations which must be performed before a simulation or scenario game may be created.
The next steps of the process relate to "test-runs" leading to the establishment of "time-frames" for Mach-1 speed of performance, and compilation of rules of play.
Notation of each move and outcome of test games must be made via usage of a descriptive notation system with a view to evaluating and reevaluating various set-ups, moves, and outcomes.
The objects of the test runs are to establish the following: Where Mach-1 time recording is concerned the game case of the process with its separate built-in timing devices, is most appropriate.
This feature, along with the four-way storage capability, makes it one of the best though not the only method of embodying Mancala and Mancala-like games.
Similar games, as well as other non-Mancala-like games; e. Method of Play--rules of the game to ensure realistic reference points vis-a-vis co-relationships between the game and subject matter treated.
The latter may be classified under four main headings:. Advertisements--In this grouping the primary focus of the game is to promote its corporate or institutional sponsor s.
A game developed for say a bank or life insurance company would fall in this category. Several sets are usually provided. In these instances the structural elements and behavorial dimensions are adapted to meet the constraints and objects of the medium.
In order to master the diverse applications of the process the language of Machcala must be mastered. See definitions of technical terms as stated hereintofore.
Elements of the Matrix: The cells, switch cells, centerfield or transactions area, pay-off or value-line, as illustrated and defined. Stage or field of play, bar point or ridge, left and right homeboard, storage units, timers, as illustrated and defined.
The structural and behavioral flexibilities of the process led to perfection of its capability to "simulate" innumerable "scenarios.
The following examples are provided to show how the principles and procedures of the process were used in respect to the above-cited claim.
They serve to exemplify the limitless scope of the invention without in any way limiting its possibilities. The scenario depicted relates to competition for medals during the course of the Olympics.
There are graphics of selected major events in each cell of the receptacle areas, together with the five rings representing the official Olympic symbol.
The first two horizontal rows on either side of the center court area represent the front or "Winter" Olympics; the third row represents the back or "Summer" Olympics.
The initial set-up calls for four value pieces Gold, Silver, Bronze, and White worth 3, 2, 1, and 0 points respectively , in the designated set-up calls of the front and back games.
Each player then places one athlete Mach in each loaded cell. When the set-up is completed there will be 16 loaded cells with a total of 84 point and special pieces on each side.
In that only the athletes and the Spirit of Olympia can effect capture, the front game is played in the usual Machcala MRII mode with one player lifting all the pieces in any cell of the first two rows and dealing one in successive cells moving clockwise.
All value pieces captured are taken off and stored. Bonus captures are earned as described hereintofore for the Stock Xchange game.
The first capture, however, must be an en prise pair of 2, 3 or 4 pieces. All cells are "in competition". The back game is played in the usual MXI manner with captures of one, two, or three medals by athletes and the Spirit-of-Olympia.
If the cell next to the captured cell is loaded with a total of two, three, or four chips and if there are other cells contiguous to and continuous with that cell also loaded with two, three, or four chips, all these conjoined cells are captured in addition to the cell from which capture was first made.
The game ends when all value pieces have been captured even if specials are still in play. Mach-1 time frame is fifteen minutes, based on the level of proficiency achieved by above-average players.
Numbers on the chips represent runs scorable 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 in this game. The scenario depicted involves two teams competing at "test" or "speed" cricket to ascertain which will be the higher scorer when the match one or two innings ends.
The "batting" team sets up with five value runs pieces and one Mach Batsman in each of the ten back row cells. The "fielding" team places five "runs" chips and one Mach "Bowler" in each of the ten back row cells.
Hat-Trick are then entered in any two loaded cells. Rules for moving and capturing are similar to above-described Machcala "Relay" two-row front games.
However, the limitation rule is waived and all captures made are scored before their respective wicket numbered Th object of the game for the team at bat is to score as many runs per wicket as possible before the team fielding captures ten wickets, which is to say, ten special batsmen pieces, and "outs" the opponent.
If the team fielding fails to capture ten wickets before all the runs value chips have been "scored" captured , then the game is set up again and continued until the fielding team has captured ten wickets.
The fielding team then "goes to bat" and the winning side is that which scores most runs. Redeployment and re-entry rules apply. Runs value chips captured are disregarded by the "fielding side".
Mach-1 is ten minutes when played at above-average speed. The scenario involves two players competing in a one set club match six suits.
Colored poker chips are used as playing pieces not shown and bear indicia representing a tennis ball with the respective point won in the center of the chip.
Thus, the red chip represents "15", the value of the first point scored in tennis; the blue chip represents "30", the second point scored; the silver chip represents "40", the third point scored; and the gold chip represents "game", the fourth and last point scored.
The initial set-up calls for four point chips to be placed in each cell together with one Mach "player".
Big Mach is called "Ace," Rex is the Umpire.